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SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: The skin of hands, feet, face or other areas first becomes red, then turns gray or white. Never rub frostbitten area with snow; that will only continue the chilling of the tissue and cause further damage. A gradual warming, by immersing the area in water that is slightly warmer than body , is safe for slight frostbite. Elevate the affected area, cover with dry and warm garments and consider pain relievers if there is slight pain. Keep frostbitten toes or fingers separate with clean, dry cloths. Hospitalization is necessary for children whose body temperatures drop below 93°F and for adults who have severe frostbite. Don’t sit in front of an oven or fire to warm the frostbitten area; unequal exposure to the heat could burn the tissue. Don’t massage the damaged area or rub with snow. Do not break blisters or give alcoholic drinks. Contact your physician or emergency room immediately .

Usual symptoms of simple concussion include headache, slight dizziness, queasy stomach or vomiting. These usually require an ice pack to the head and rest. Observe for any severe symptoms such as unusual drowsiness, unequal pupils, persistent vomiting, confusion and lack of coordination. If one or more of these conditions are present, immediately seek medical care.


BEE OR WASP STING – Try to remove stinger by gently scraping with a clean knife blade. Cleanse with soap and water and apply an ice compress to reduce swelling. If person has an allergic reaction (will happen within 30 minutes), hives, itching all over, wheezing, vomiting or a history of allergic reaction, follow directions on bee sting kit, if available. Call for emergency help.

TICK BITE – Cover the insect’ s body with a heavy oil or lighter fluid and allow to remain for about 20 minutes. Carefully remove with tweezers, being sure to remove all parts of the insect. Scrub area with soap and water.

ITCHY BITES – Use hydrocortisone cream, calamine lotion or rubbing alcohol.

Have person sit down and lean forward. Pinch nose and have person breathe through the mouth. Or pack bleeding nostril(s) with gauze and pinch. If bleeding persists, call a doctor.

Don’t force to vomit immediately . Call poison control. Tell them what substance and how much was swallowed. Take the bottle or package to the phone when you call. Directions on the container may not be up to date. Always follow the instructions given by the poison control center. Do not give the patient fluids or cause to vomit if unconscious or in convulsions. Call for emergency help.

Have person lie down, loosen clothing and cover to prevent loss of body heat. Be cautious not to overheat. Check pulse rate and seek professional help.

Tweezers remove most splinters easily , but a physician should remove deeply embedded splinters. If the length of the splinter is visible under the skin, use a sterilized needle to slit the skin over the splinter and pull out the splinter with the tweezers. Clean the wound.

Elevate the injured joint to a comfortable position. Apply an ice bag or a cold compress over the sprain to reduce pain and swelling. Ability to move does not rule out fracture. Person should not bear weight on a sprain. Sprains that continue to swell should be examined by a physician.

When person cannot be aroused, lay in a flat position and make sure the victim’ s airway is clear. Check pulse rate. If no pulse is felt, begin administering CPR. Keep the person comfortable and warm. Never give an unconscious person food or liquid. If vomiting occurs, turn head to the side to prevent choking on inhaled vomitus. Call for medical help.