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This First Aid List is not intended to take the place of qualified help in the event of an emergency. In any emergency, always seek medical advice and assistance when you think it is needed. It is also recommended that you take a certified CPR and first aid course.

Flush the wound area with water and then wash with soap and water for at least five minutes. Cover with a clean dressing or cloth. Immediately seek care at a hospital orphysician office.

As soon as possible following the injury , dip a cloth in ice water and hold next to the area for at least 10 minutes. A “black eye” is essentially a bruise around the eye that will cause pain and swelling and gradually fade in time. If the bruise does not fade or if there is a change in vision, consult a physician.


MINOR – Wash wound area with soap and water, not alcohol; cover with a sterile gauze bandage.

MAJOR – If blood appears to be gushing or spurting, follow these instructions and call for help. Take a clean cloth or towel and press hard on the cut for 10 minutes. Do not remove pressure to see if it’ s working. If possible, raise the cut above the level of the chest. After 10 minutes, if the bleeding has stopped, cover the cut with a bandage.
If the bleeding hasn’t stopped, try pressing harder for five more minutes and seek medical help.


– Immediately cool the burn area by putting it under cool running water or in a sink filled with cool water for at least five minutes or until the pain subsides.

Never apply butter, grease or ointment. Don’t open blisters or remove dead skin. Cover with gauze. If blisters break, apply a clean dressing. If the burn is on the face, covers an area bigger than your hand or if it blisters, call the doctor or emergency number.

SEVERE – Have victim lie down and cover him or her. Never remove clothing or clean the burns. Call for emergency help.

CHEMICAL – Quickly flush area with water for five minutes, cover with gauze and call for emergency help.

If the person is choking and unable to talk or breathe, get behind the person and wrap your arms around the waist. Make a fist, grasp fist with other hand. Place fist against the stomach just above the navel but well below the lower tip of the breastbone. Pull fist upward into the stomach with a quick upward thrust. Repeat up to four times. If choking continues, seek medical help. If the victim becomes unconscious, lay him or her down, roll to side, pull the tongue and jaw forward and with your index finger, dislodge any visible matter. Perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and/or CPR.

Gently prevent person from hurting him or herself on nearby objects. Loosen clothing after jerking subsides. Have person lie down. Help keep the airway open. T urn head to the side in case of vomiting to prevent choking on inhaled vomitus. If breathing stops, administer mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or CPR. After seizure, allow patient to rest. Seek medical attention.

Turn off electricity if possible. If not possible, pull victim from the electrical contact with a dry rope, wooden pole or cloth. Do not touch victim until contact with electric current is broken. Administer CPR.  Call for emergency help.


CHEMICALS – Have person turn head so injured side is down. Flood eye with water for at least 15 minutes. Cover eye with clean cloth and seek professional help.

FOREIGN PARTICLE – Do not rub the eye, that may cause deeper injury . Try to locate the object; if it is in the pupil, or seems embedded in the white of the eye, go immediately to the emergency room. If the object is floating in the liquid surface, you can try to remove it. Hold the lower lid open, look up, and using the edge of a clean cloth, brush the matter quickly off the eye’ s surface. If you can’t see an object, pull the upper lid down and over the lower lid and let it slide back up. This may dislodge the particle. If pain and tearing persist, seek medical help.

Lay patient on his or her back and raise both legs above the heart. Check airway to be certain it is clear. Loosen tight clothing and apply cold cloths to the face. If fainting lasts more than a minute or two, keep patient covered and seek medical help.

Stop any bleeding and cover wounds with clean dressings. Keep victim comfortably warm to prevent shock. If you suspect broken bones, do not move person unless absolutely necessary (such as in case of fire). Call for emergency help.

Fishhook injuries carry a high risk of infection, so if you can reach a physician, do so. If you are far from medical help, push the hook farther through the tissue until it goes through the skin. Don’t pull it out; the barb will cause further injury . Using wire cutters, cut off the barb, and then pull the hook back through the skin. Clean and bandage the wound and seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Stop any bleeding and cover wound with clean dressing. If it is a simple fracture, set it in a splint (wood, corrugate ed cardboard, rolled-up blanket, pillow, etc.) supported with cloth or rope ties. Do not move patient if back or neck injury is suspected. Keep person warm and treat for shock (see next column). Call for emergency help.